On the Resurrection of the Dead (With Active Table of Contents)
Of the DEGs, 4, Pathway enrichment of AS-DEGs favored an increase in abundance of transcripts related to endocytosis and Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, fatty acid metabolism, and peroxisomal functions, suggestive of needs for membrane component and protein removal or recycling as cells lose water, as well as an ongoing repair of membranes and removal of ROS. AS was also involved in transcript selections for the processes that were revealed in the overall analysis of DEGs mentioned previously Fig. Vegetative DT most likely evolved in certain angiosperm lineages from selection pressures exerted by an environment that delivered lengthy periods of little or no soil water.
The lack of DT-specific genome organizational features in B. This most likely involved those genetic components that deliver developmentally controlled DT to seeds and pollen A portion of that alteration in the regulation of gene expression in B. Orphan genes are thought to represent lineage-specific adaptations and, in some plant species, to be linked to stress responses e.
This may also be true for the expressed orphan genes of B. The apparent expansion of 5S rRNA genes in the Boea lineage may reflect the need for a supply of active ribosomes during the rapid resumption of protein synthesis and recovery on rehydration. As this is the first resurrection genome, to our knowledge, to be sequenced, it remains to be seen whether this is a common genotypic feature of resurrection species. ELIP proteins are postulated to protect the photosynthesis machinery from photooxidative damage by preventing the accumulation of free chlorophyll by binding pigments and preserving the chlorophyll-protein complexes ELIP proteins and transcripts have been reported to increase in abundance in a linear fashion with the amount of photoactivation and photodamage to the photosystem II reaction centers, D1 protein degradation, and changes in pigment level Photooxidative damage is a primary stressor for resurrection species, as they spend a considerable amount of time in the dried state and under high-light conditions Thus, it appears that B.
The transcriptomic analysis provides a broader perspective on the nature of the cellular protection aspects of vegetative DT, highlighted by the increase in transcript abundance for LEA protein genes, GST gene family, and peroxidases.
The draft genome offers a unique opportunity to construct a systems approach to understanding the mechanistic aspects of DT and resurrection in plants. Such an approach can help influence our understanding of the evolution of the land plants and our attempts to design strategies for the improvement of the dehydration tolerance of our major crops as food security issues increase in importance globally.
The original accessions for B. The genome was sequenced using the whole-genome shotgun approach, using Illumina HiSeq and Roche platforms. Genes were annotated using a combined approach on the repeat masked genome with ab initio gene predictions, protein similarity, and transcripts to build optimal gene models. Repeat sequences were identified by both de novo approach and sequence similarity at the nucleotide and protein levels. Detailed information of materials, methods, and any associated references are available in the SI Appendix , Materials and Methods. We thank the Beijing Genetics Institute staff members and Capital Normal University graduate students for their assistances on genome sequencing, assembling, and bioinformatic analyses.
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We are also thankful for the special financial support from the National Key Disciplines of China for this project. Author contributions: L. He designed research; L. Hu, L. He analyzed data; and L. He wrote the paper. Reviewers: S.
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GSE , and the BioSample database, www. This article contains supporting information online at www. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. Skip to main content. Oliver , and Yikun He. Lihong Xiao. Significance The genome analysis presented here represents a major step forward in the field of desiccation tolerance and a much-anticipated resource that will have a far-reaching effect in many areas of plant biology and agriculture.
Results Whole-Genome Features. View this table: View inline View popup.
Table 1. The Genome and Desiccation Tolerance. Gene Expression and Desiccation. Discussion Vegetative DT most likely evolved in certain angiosperm lineages from selection pressures exerted by an environment that delivered lengthy periods of little or no soil water. Materials and Methods The original accessions for B. Acknowledgments We thank the Beijing Genetics Institute staff members and Capital Normal University graduate students for their assistances on genome sequencing, assembling, and bioinformatic analyses. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Plant Ecol 1 : 85 — OpenUrl CrossRef.
Trends Plant Sci 14 2 : — Methods Mol Biol — Cell Mol Life Sci 69 19 : — Oliver M-J , et al. Plant Cell 23 4 : — Gerten D , et al. J Hydrometeorol 12 5 : — Cushman JC , Oliver MJ Understanding vegetative desiccation tolerance using integrated functional genomics approaches within a comparative evolutionary framework. Plant desiccation tolerance in plants , eds. Plant Mol Biol Rep 17 3 : — Wilson C-L Floral anatomy in Gesneriaceae.
Bot Gaz — Jiang G , et al. Planta 6 : — Plant Cell Environ 27 11 : — Matassi G , Montero L-M , Salinas J , Bernardi G The isochore organization and the compositional distribution of homologous coding sequences in the nuclear genome of plants. Nucleic Acids Res 17 13 : — Our family moved to Lahore in the Punjab.
An unequivocal conviction came over me that fulfillment would crown any of my prayers uttered in that sacred spot. Standing there with Uma one day, I watched two kites flying over the roofs of the buildings on the opposite side of the very narrow lane. Matches are played in India with kites whose strings are covered with glue and ground glass. Each player attempts to sever the string of his opponent.
A freed kite sails over the roofs; there is great fun in catching it. Inasmuch as Uma and I were on the balcony, it seemed impossible that any loosed kite could come into our hands; its string would naturally dangle over the roofs. The players across the lane began their match. One string was cut; immediately the kite floated in my direction. It was stationary for a moment, through sudden abatement of breeze, which sufficed to firmly entangle the string with a cactus plant on top of the opposite house.
A perfect loop was formed for my seizure. I handed the prize to Uma. If the other kite comes to you, then I shall believe. I continued my prayers with a crescendo intensity. A forcible tug by the other player resulted in the abrupt loss of his kite. It headed toward me, dancing in the wind.
My helpful assistant, the cactus plant, again secured the kite string in the necessary loop by which I could grasp it. I presented my second trophy to Uma. This is all too uncanny for me! Spiritual teacher; from Sanskrit root gur, to raise, to uplift. My name was changed to Yogananda when I entered the ancient monastic Swami Order in My guru bestowed the religious title of Paramhansa on me in see chapters 24 and Traditionally, the second caste of warriors and rulers. This noble Sanskrit poem, which occurs as part of the Mahabharata epic, is the Hindu Bible.
Babu Mister is placed in Bengali names at the end. A yogic technique whereby the sensory tumult is stilled, permitting man to achieve an ever-increasing identity with cosmic consciousness. See chapter A Sanskrit name for God as Ruler of the universe; from the root Is, to rule. There are names for God in the Hindu scriptures, each one carrying a different shade of philosophical meaning.banripali.tk
The resurrection genome of Boea hygrometrica: A blueprint for survival of dehydration | PNAS
The infinite potencies of sound derive from the Creative Word, Aum, the cosmic vibratory power behind all atomic energies. Any word spoken with clear realization and deep concentration has a materializing value. The poet Tennyson has left us, in his Memoirs, an account of his repetitious device for passing beyond the conscious mind into superconsciousness:. Kali is a symbol of God in the aspect of eternal Mother Nature. Mother was in Calcutta, joyously supervising the wedding preparations. Father and I alone remained at our home in Bareilly in northern India, whence Father had been transferred after two years at Lahore.
I had previously witnessed the splendor of nuptial rites for my two elder sisters, Roma and Uma; but for Ananta, as the eldest son, plans were truly elaborate. Mother was welcoming numerous relatives, daily arriving in Calcutta from distant homes. She lodged them comfortably in a large, newly acquired house at 50 Amherst Street. Everything was in readiness—the banquet delicacies, the gay throne on which Brother was to be carried to the home of the bride-to-be, the rows of colorful lights, the mammoth cardboard elephants and camels, the English, Scottish and Indian orchestras, the professional entertainers, the priests for the ancient rituals.
Father and I, in gala spirits, were planning to join the family in time for the ceremony. Shortly before the great day, however, I had an ominous vision. It was in Bareilly on a midnight.